Chowkwanyun and Reed advocate instead an approach that focuses less on outrage and more on hard data. “People need to take a breather to parse data in more sophisticated ways,” Chowkwanyun told me. He warned against a “pro forma” kind of racial-disparity research that simply says We have a racial disparity here, and we have to react to it. It’s outrageous! “Just saying ‘There’s racism here’ can be counterproductive. We are pushing people to be more precise.” That means collecting data that currently do not exist. “When a patient comes to a clinic, they can self-report their race, but how do they self-report socioeconomic status? How do you actually gather that information?” Most states still aren’t collecting the relevant data systematically—not even data on race, let alone other characteristics.